الاثنين، 3 أبريل 2017

قواعد جرامر انجليزي اولي ث


للأخبار الجيدة

3.للأخبار السيئة


Congratulations

Oh, dear.


Well done!

Oh,no!I'm so sorry.


That's wonderful/ fantastic news

What bad news!


That's really great.

What a shock !


Congratulations on your results!

I'm sorry to hear your bad news.


الرد على التهئنة

الرد على المواساة


Yes, I can't believe it myself.

Never mind.




4-الاعتذار Apologizing



..........فعل+ فاعلI'm really sorry, but+

I apologize for (v+ing)………………….

Excuse me for (v+ing)

I'm sorry for (v+ing)……….


الرفض Refusing



الموافقة Accepting


Well, I hope you will…….

That's ok.


Oh dear. well, can you…….

It doesn't matter


I hope you get me another one

Never mind




5-للسؤال عن النصيحة Asking for advice



What do you think I should do ?

Can I ask your advice about ………….?

Can you give me some advice about……..?


اعطاء النصيــحةGiving Advice




You should/shouldn't +inf

You had better+inf

If I were you, I'd+inf

The best thing to do is to+inf

It’s a good idea to+inf


Refusing

Accepting


I'll think about it.

I'll see.

No, I don't think so.

Thanks a lot for your advice.

Yes, I know I should.

Yes, you are right.

Yes, I'll do it.




6-التعبير عن الرأى: Expressing Opinion:



What's your opinion of / about……….?

What do you think of…………………? + n + (v+ing)

What would you say about……………?

ابداء الرأى:

......فعل+ فاعل I think +

.......فعل +فاعل In my opinion +

......... فعل+فاعل In my point of view,.




الــرفــــض Refusing

الموافقة Accepting


I disagree with you.

I don't think so.

I don't think that you are right.



I agree with you.

Yes, I think so .

You are right.

Yes, that's what I think.




عمل الدعـوة Invitation



1- Would you like to come to …….

2- I'd like to invite you to ………. + المصدر ..?

3- Do you want to come to ………….

4- Can you come to ………………….


الرفض Refusing

الموافقة Accepting


I'd love to, but I can't.

I'm afraid I can't.

I wish I could but I can't.

- I'd love to .

- I'd love to come

- I'd be pleased to come

It's kind of you. Why not?




عرض المساعدة Offering help



Can I help you?

Would you like some…………....?

Would you like me to ………..….?

Shall I …………….for you?


الرفــضRefusing

الموافقة Accepting


No,thank you .I can manage.





Yes, please.

Thank you.

Yes,please.I'd like……..




التمنــــــى Wishes



I hope you will………

I wish you……….

أتمنى لك الشفاء العاجل I wish you speed recovery.




الرد : It's kind of you.

السؤال عن الاتجاهات :



Could you tell me the way to ………..….?

Excuse me , How can I go to ………..….?

Excuse me , where is ………………….?

الرد"اعطاء الاتجاهات"

Go straight on and turn right / left .


♣ عند الاستفسار نقول : -What is the matter with you ?

-What's wrong with you ?





♣ عند التحذير : -Be careful or you 'll ………..

- I warn you of …………..



♣ عند الدهشة : - How amazing ! -Good Heavens!



♣-عند الغضب: . -Don't you dare to do that

.

♣ عند السؤال عن الطقس : - What's the weather like today?



♣ عند السؤال عن السعر"الثمن": للمفرد How much is it ? -

للجمع - How much are they ?

.........................................................................................................

1-You don't know the meaning of a word .

· What does this word mean ?

· Could you tell me the meaning of this word , please?



2-The sky is full of dark clouds .

· I think it is going to rain .



3-You can't hear what somebody is saying.

· Please, raise your voice. · Could you speak loudly, please?



4-Your friend thanked you for your help.

· Not at all. · Don't mention it . · You are welcome.

You introduce your friend Ramy to your brother. 5-

· This is my friend Ramy.



6-You are introduced to someone.

· Pleased to meet you.



7-Someone asks you what your favourite hobby was.

My favourite hobby is reading books. ·



8-Someone has asked you how good you are in English.

· I am very good at English. · I am fluent in English.



9-You visit your sick friend in hospital.

· How are you? · I wish you speed recovery.



10-You want to say that your cousin went to Cairo and he is there now.

· My cousin has gone to Cairo.



11-You ask your brother about his favourite animal.

What’s your favourite wild animal? ·



12-You are seeing your pen-friend off at the airport.

· I wish you a pleasant flight. (see off شخص يودع)

· Have a nice flight. Goodbye and keep in touch.



13-You seem worried about passing the exam.

· I’m very worried about passing the exam.



14-You want permission from your father to go to the cinema tonight.

· May I go to the cinema tonight?



15-A businessman asks you why English is important for him.

· You can communicate with many foreign companies in English

16- Your brother's tooth is hurting.

· You must go to the dentist's



17-Your friend has not returned the book that he borrowed from you

· I hope you will return my book.



Your brother is taking an exam next week. 18-

· You must work hard and revise your lessons well.



19-You want to invite your friend to your birthday party.

· I would like to invite you to my birthday party.



20-You received news that you came at the top of your school in the final exam. You never expected it.

· I can not believe it myself. · What fantastic news!



Your friend has lost his key and he can not open the door. 21-

· If I were you, I'd bring a carpenter to open it.



22-Your father has bought a new car.

· It is really wonderful / great / fantastic.



23-Maha bought a new camera and does not know how to operate it.

· You should read the instruction book



24-Your brother drives his car very fast.

· Be careful. You should slow the car down.



25-Your sister saw a terrible dream.

· You shouldn't worry or panic. It's just a dream.



26-You warn your friend that he may fall off the ladder.

· Be careful . / Take care or you will fall off the ladder.



You warn a little boy not to touch the electric switch. 27

· Do not touch the electric switch . It is dangerous .



28-Your brother says that tourists come to Egypt for its fine weather .

· That 's right . But they come to see the monuments too.



29-You bought a gold ring, but you discovered it was an imitation.

· I am terribly sorry. I have been deceived.



30- You ask your friend to help you move the cupboard.

· Can you help me move the cupboard, please?



31- You decline your friend's invitation to his birthday party ploitlry.

· I wish I could come but I am very busy.



32-Your classmate inquires if you believe in old Egyptian legends.

No , I don’t believe in legends. ·



33- Your friend says that "facebook' is important but you don’t agree.

· I don’t agree with you. I think it's a waste of time.



34-You politely ask your teacher to repeat what he has said.

· Excuse me , Can you repeat what you said again , sir?

· I am sorry to interrupt you , sir but can you repeat what you said again?



35-You aren't angry when your friend stepped accidentally on you r foot.

Never mind. · No problem. ·



36-You have a phobia of exams . A friend asks you when it began.

My phobia began when I was ten years old . ·



37- Your brother Ali says he will be late. Report this to your mother.

· My brother told me that he would be late.

38- Your friend asks you what job you would like to do when you leave school.

· I would like to be a doctor.



39-You are asked about the best way to communicate with your friends.

· I think the best way to communicate with my friends is using the internet.



40-Your brother asks your opinion of his new laptop.

· I think it is wonderful and modern.



41-You don't know to revise for exams . You want your teacher's advice.

· Sir, can you gave me some advice/tips on how to revise for exams?



42-Your brother is playing with matches. You warn him.

· You mustn't play with matches or you will burn yourself.



43-You've just met a friend who you haven't seen for a year. You want to know about your friend's activities since you last met.

· What activities have you done since we last met?



44-Your friend bought a TV set . When he returned home, he found out the TV hadn't worked. He asks you what to do.

· You should call the maintenance centre.

· You should return it to the shop where you bought it .



Your friend asks you about the characteristics of a good friend. 45-

· A good friend should be honest , sincere , helpful and friendly.



46-You are asked about the qualities of a successful student.

· A successful student should be hard working , well-organised , ambitious and smart.



47-You are asked why you want to be a doctor.

· I want to be a doctor to help the poor and benefit my society.



48- You are asked why you want to be a policeman.

· I want to be a policeman to catch the criminals and keep the security of my country.



49-You are a receptionist and you want to see a resident's identity card.

Excuse me , can you show you your identity card ,please? ·



50- You receive a quest at your home.

· Make yourself at home.



51-You offer food and drink to your guests . What will you say to make them start eating?

· Help yourself.



52-You are asked about your date and place of birth.

· I was born in Cairo in 1995.



53-You suggest a solution to the problem of pollution in Cairo.

· I think people should use public transport instead of their private cars.

In my opinion , using renewable sources of energy is the best solution. ·



54-A waiter asks you , " How would you like your fish?"

· I like it grilled / fried.



55-A doctor asks you , " what's wrong with you?

· I have a terrible headache .

· I have a sore throat and my temperature is very high.



56-You arrive late for an appointment with your manager. Apologize and give a reason.

· I am so sorry but the traffic was heavy and standstill.



57-A friend is worried about an interview tomorrow. Suggest a way to make him/her feel better.

· You should have self confidence and look your best.

· You should be relaxed and handsome.

58-Your brother is preparing to leave for the airport . Offer to give him a hand.

· Can I help you?

· Is there anything I can do for you?



59-Your friend can't afford to buy a new car.

· Why don’t you buy a second hand car?

· If I were you . I 'd take a loan from the bank.



Recommend a cheap hotel to your friend to stay in . 60-

· You should stay in the Hilton hotel. It's cheap and comfortable.



You see your classmate coughing and sneezing too much. 61-

· You should see a doctor at once.



62-Advise a classmate whom you think is overweight.

· If I were you , I 'd do some exercise and eat healthy food.



63-A friend says to you ,"You look worn out. 'Tell him/her why?

· Because I had been studying all night.



64- A friend says: "You look very cheerful today." Tell him/her why.

· I am cheerful today because I have got high marks in my exams..



65-A person is using his mobile while crossing the highway. Warn him.

· You mustn't use your mobile while crossing the highway. You may have an accident.



66- Your cousin is going out with you in a small boat. Advise him to wear a lifejacket.

· If I were you , I'd wear my lifejacket.



67-You are on a crowded train, and there's only one empty seat. What do you ask the person sitting next to it?

Excuse me , Is this seat empty , sir? ·

68-You are sitting on,a bus and the person next to you starts to smoke. · You mustn't smoke here . You aren’t allowed to smoke here.



69-A tourist wants to visit some places of interest in Egypt.

· You should visit the pyramids in Giza and the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.



70-A friend asks you about your plans for the next holiday.

· I am going to spend my holiday in Alexandria.



71-Your father wants to know your opinion about TV serials.

· I think they are waste of time.



72-The teacher asks you which language skill you would like to improve.

· I would like to improve the listening skill.



73-A classmate asks you why you enjoy playing sports . Name one reason.

· I enjoy sports because it keeps me fit and strengthens my body.



74- Someone asks you the time of the next train to Aswan.

· The next train to Aswan leaves at 7.30.



75-Someone asks you a question which you don't want to answer.

· Sorry. I'd prefer not to answer.



76-You are looking for a watch. Ask your friend about it.

· Have you seen my watch?





No gain without pain No sweet without sweat To Be or Not To Be









♣ Re -write the following sentences:



?..................... + مصدر + فاعل + Can

=

?.................مصدر able to + + الفاعل Is / Are +





Can she speak French? No , she can't . (Is) ·

Is she able to speak French ? No , she isn't. ®



· Can you drive a car? Yes , I can . (Are )

® Are you able to drive a car? Yes , I am .



· Are rabbits able to run fast ? Yes, they are . (Can )

Can rabbits run fast ? Yes , they can . ®





have ......................?+ الفاعل Do / Does +

=

+ got ........................?الفاعل Have / Has +



· Do lions have sharp teeth? Yes, they do . (Have)

® Have lions got sharp teeth? Yes, they have .



Does a shark have feathers? No , it doesn't . ( Has ) ·

Has a shark got feathers? No , it hasn't . ®



· Have you got a driving license? Yes , I have . (Do)

Do you have a driving license? Yes , I do . ®



Is it your habit to walk to school every day? Yes, it is. (Do) ·

® Do you walk to school every day? Yes , I do .

·Was it your habit to play chess ? Yes , it was. ( Did )

Did you use to play chess? Yes , I did . ®



Do you have any future plans to buy a car? No , I don't. ( Are) ·

® Are you going to buy a car? No , I am not .



Do you have the ability to ride horses? No , I don't . (Can) ·

Can you ride horses? No , I can't . ®



Was Aya able to speak English when she was 10? No, she wasn't. (Could) ·

Could Aya speak English when she was 10 ? No , she couldn't ®



· Sara doesn't read sience fictions novels , does she? (never)

® Sara never reads science fiction novels , does she?



…………………………………………………………………………..



Whenever you get pain in your life :



Just think about the full form of PAINS:



Positive Attitude In Negative Situations





So





Remember the lesson of yesterday



Learn it today



Don't take it into tomorrow









أولا:الضرورةNecessity



المستقبـل

الماضى

المضارع




will have to +inf

will need to



= It will be necessary for مفعول+( to+مصدر)



had to +inf





= It was necessary for مفعول +( to+مصدر)



must

has /have to + inf

need to



= It is necessary for مفعول + (to+(مصدر






He must come to work on time. (necessary) ·

It is necessary for him to come to work on time. ®



· She had to drive us to the station yesterday. (necessary)

® It was necessary for her to drive us to the station yesterday.



· We will have to get up early tomorrow. (necessary)

® It will be necessary for us to get up early tomorrow.



· It is necessary for us to attend the meeting. (We)

® We have to attend the meeting.



· It was necessary for her to Finish the report yesterday. (had to )

She had to finish the report yesterday. ®

ملحوظه:فى حالة السؤال نقدم الفعل المساعد على الفاعل:

· Does he have to take the early train? (necessary)

Is it necessary for him to take the early train? ®



Did he have to meet them at the airport? (Was) ·

Was it necessary for him to meet them at the airport? ®

· Will she have to go to school tomorrow? (Will it)

Will it be necessary for her to go to school tomorrow? ®



Was it necessary for she to apply for the job? (have to ) ·

Did she have to apply for the job ? ®



ثانيا:عدم الضرورة:



المستقبل

الماضى

المضارع





won't have to +inf





=It won't be necessary ….



ddn't have to +inf





=It wasn't necessary…..

=It was unnecessary….



don't /doesn'thave to

don't/doesn't need to +inf

needn't



=It isn't necessary…..

=It is unnecessary…




· He doesn't have to take a taxi. (necessary)

It isn't necessary for him to take a taxi. ®



· They didn't have to wait for us. (necessary)

® It wasn't necessary for them to wait for us.



· It wasn't necessary for her to wash the dishes. (She)

® She didn't have to wash the dishes.



· It isn't necessary for him to drive us to the station. (have to)

® He doesn't have to drive us to the station.



· It won't be necessary for me to take the umbrella with me. (have to)

® I won't have to take the umbrella with me.



· It was unnecessary for you to wait for us . ( have to )

® You didn't have to wait for us .

ثالثا: النصيحة: Should+inf















+ المصـــــد ر

It is advisable to


It is desirable to


I advise you to


If I were you, I would


It would be a good idea to


it is a good thing to


You had better










(Shouldn't +مصدر)











+ المصـــــد ر

It is not advisable to


It is not desirable to


I advise you not to


If I were you, I wouldn't


It would not be a good idea to


It is not a good thing to


You had better not


You would rather not


















· You should help your friends. (advisable) (If)

® It is advisable to help your friends.

® If I were you , I'd help my friends.



· You look ill. You should see a doctor. (advise)

® You look ill. I advise you to see a doctor.



· It is inadvisable to waste your time. (shouldn't)

® You shouldn't waste your time.



· It is inadvisable to stay up late before exams. (had better)

® You had better not stay up late before exams.

رابعا:التعبير عن النهى و التحريم :

)ممنوع ( مصدرmustn't+

=be not allowed to + مصدر

It is not allowed to

It is forbidden to

It is banned to + مصدر

It is prohibited to

It is against the law



· You aren't allowed to park your car here. (mustn't)

® You mustn't park your car here.



· You mustn't smoke in hospitals. (allowed)

® You aren't allowed to smoke in hospitals.



· Taking photographs here is forbidden. (mustn't)

® You mustn't take photographs here.



· It is against the law to enter this place without permission. (mustn't)

® You mustn't enter this place without permission.



· It is banned to smoke in petrol stations. (mustn't)

® You mustn't smoke in petrol stations.



· It isn't allowed to take your dog into the garden. (mustn't)

® You mustn't take your dog into the garden.



سـتـرزقـون من حيث لاتعلمون فقط قل:

استغفر الله وأتوب اليه













الكلام المباشر :هو الكلام الموجه للشخص مباشرة ويوضع بين علامتى تنصيص.

الكلام الغيرالمباشر:هو الكلام المبلغ للغير ولا يوضع بين علامتى تنصيص.



أولا:الجملة الخبرية Statement

♣ تحويل الكلام المباشر الى غير مباشر:

1-تحويل فعل القول:



said

said ----›

tell

say to ----›

say

say ----››


told

said to ----›

tells

says to ---›

says

says ---›








2-نحذف الأقواس ونربط ب that ويمكن حذفها.

3-نغير الضمائر حسب المتكلم والمخاطب:

(I-we)تعود على الفاعل you تعود على المفعول

4-تغيير الأزمنة وظروف المكان والزمان كالتالى:




Direct Speech : الكلام المباشر

Indirect:الكلام الغير مباشر



Present Simple : مضارع بسيط

Past Simple : ماضى بسيط



Present Continuous : مضارع مستمر

Past Continuous :ماضى مستمر




Present Perfect :مضارع تام

Past Perfect :ماضى تام




Past Simple : ماضى بسيط

ماضى بسيط /ماضى تام


( can / will / shall / may ) + المصدر

( could / would / should / might ) + المصدر


( must / have to / has to ) +

المصدر



( had to ) + المصدر






الكلام المباشر


الكلام الغير مباشر



This

that


These

those


Here

there


Now

then


Today

that day


Tonight

that night


Yesterday

the day before /

the previous day


Tomorrow

the next day /

the following day


next ( week )

the following ( week ) /

the ( week ) after


last ( week )

the ( week ) before

the previous week


ago

Before


Thus

So




♣ Hagar said to Nora, "I will go to school tomorrow." (told)

· Hagar told Nora that she would go to school the following day.



♣ Ahmed said to Omar," I'm reading a book now". (told)

· Ahmed told Omar that he was reading a book then.



♣ Nada said to Hala," I haven’t finished doing my homework". ( told) · Nada told Hala that she hadn't finished doing her homework.



♣ Sara said to Hoda, “I phoned you yesterday” (told)

· Sara told Hoda that she had phoned her the day before.



♣" I feel tired, so I must go to bed now ." ( Mother said that )

· Mother said that she felt , so she had to go to bed then.

ملاحظـــات هامــة:

1- إذا كان فعل القول مضارع أو مستقبل لا تتغير الأزمنة أو ظروف الزمان و المكان ولكن تتغير الضمائر فقط .

Khaled says to me," I will travel abroad next week ♣

· Khaled tells me that he will travel abroad next week.



2-إذا كانت الجملة داخل الأقواس تعبر عن حقيقة لا تتغير الأزمنة أو ظروف الزمان و المكان . ( أى يظل زمن الجملة مضارع بسيط كما هو )

♣ Nabil said," the earth moves round the sun."

Nabil said that the earth moves round the sun. ·



3- إذا كان فعل القول ماضى والكلام قد انتهى منذ فترة قصيرة لا تتغير الأزمنة أو ظروف الزمان أو المكان مع التعبيرات التالية :

(just now / a moment ago / a minute ago / a short time ago / recently )

Amr said just now,"I 've done my homework." ♣

· Amr said just now that he has just finished his homework.



· Maha told me just now she …………… a story now.

a-was reading b-had read c- is reading d- would read



4- للربط بين جملتين خبريتين نستخدم ( ( and that أو and added that))

♣ He said " I have sold my car. I will buy a new one next week. "

· He said that he had sold his car and that he would buy a new one the week after.





5- للربط بين جملتين خبريتين الفاعلان بهما مختلفان نستخدم ( and ).

♣ Hany said "I lost my pen" . "I found it" said Ali.

· Hany said that he had lost his pen and Ali said that he had found it





6- اذا كانت الجملة فى المباشر هى الحالة الأولى لــ ( If ) تحول إلى الحالة الثانية لــ ( If ) .

♣ My father said to me" If you study hard ,you will get high marks"

My father told me that if I studied hard, I would get high marks". ·



* لاحظ التحويلات التالية لفعل القول :

1-إذا وجد فى الجملة (((( It is a good idea / you should / you ought to يحول فعل القول الى advised



♣ The doctor said to me,"You should take a rest" (advised)

· The doctor advised me to take a rest.



2- إذا كانت الجملة منفية وبها إنكار يحول إلى ( ( denied + Gerund

♣ The thief said, 'I didn't steal the money" (denied)

· The thief denied stealing the money.



3-اذا كانت الجملة تحمل معنى الاعتذار يحول الى apologized for + ing) )

♣ Nabil said to his mother," I am sorry for breaking the window" - · Nabil apologized to his mother for breaking the window.



4- إذا كانت الجملة تدل على إقتراح ....: (suggested+v+ing)

Let's go out for dinner" (Noha suggested)" ♣

· Noha suggested going out for dinner.



5 - إذا كانت الجملة تحمل معنى الشكر .... يحول فعل القول إلى :

thank + شخص + for + ( v + ing )

♣ " It’s kind of you to help me. " ( He thanked )

· He thanked me for helping him.



6- إذا بدأت الجملة بــ ( Yes ) يحول إلى agreed to +inf))

إذا بدأت الجملة بــ ( No ) يحول إلى ( refused to + inf )

♣ He said to me ,"Yes , I will help you "

· He agreed to help me .





Never explain yourself

Your friends don’t need it Your enemies won't believe it



ثانيا: تحويل الغير مباشر الى مباشر:

1- تبقى say كما هى وتحول tell الى say to

تبقى said كما هى وتحول told الى said to

2-تحذف that وتستخدم فاصلة (,) وعلامات التنصيص " "

3-تتغير الضمائر حسب المتكلم والمخاطب.

4- اذا كان فعل القول مضارع لا تتغير الأزمنة ولا أسماء الاشارة ولا الظروف.

5- اذا كان فعل القول ماضى ترجع الأزمنة والظروف الى اصلها حسب الجدول السابق:



She tells me that she doesn’t like tea. (says to) ♣

· She says to me,"I don't like tea."



♣ John told me that he would arrive in Cairo the following week. (said to)

John said to me,"I will arrive in Cairo next week." ·



He told me that he would join the army the following year. (said to) ♣

I said to me , " I will join the army next year." ·



hours. ( said to) ♣ Mohamed told me that he had been studying English for

· Mohamed said to me,"I have been studying English for two hours."



♣ Khaled told me that he had bought a camera the previous day. (said to)

· Khaled said to me,"I bought a camera yesterday."



♣-Reem told Shaimaa that she didn't want to go out that evening. (said to)

· Reem said to Shaimaa," I don’t want to go out this evening."



♣ She said that she'd see her friend the next day ( I )

· I will see my friend tomorrow ", said she.



He told us that his bag had been lost the week before. (said to ) ♣

He said to me, " My bag was lost yesterday." ·



He told me that he had did his best to improve his English . ( said to) ♣

· He said to me , " I do my best to improve my English ."

Choose the correct answers from a , b, c or d:

· Mona said she ………..any ideas who was coming .

a-doesn’t have b- didn't have c- hasn't have d- haven't had



· She asked me what I ………………the following week.

a-had done b-am doing c-did d- would do



· Nabil ……………his father that he wanted to be a writer.

a-asked b- said to c-suggested d- told



He told us that he………….. swimming the day before. ·

a-had gone b- has gone c- goes d-would go



· He said just now that he ……………..a new car next month .

a-would buy b-have bought c-buys d-will buy



· She ……………that she would meet him the next morning.

a-asked b-told c-promised d-complained



The assistant told me ……….the changing room was there. ·

a-which b-if c-that d- where



· Hazem said he ……..full marks in English the month before.

a-gets b-has got c-would get d-had got



· The mechanic said that he ……………….my car.

a-repairs b-has repaired c-is repairing d-had repaired



Hala said a moment ago that she ………..early every night. ·

a-slept b- had slept c-sleeps d-was sleeping



Ali suggested ………. A film on T.V. ·

a-watching b-to watch c-to watching d-watch






♣ حالات استخدام The :

(1)- تستخدم قبل الأشياء الوحيدة من نوعها ولا يوجد منها الا شئ واحد فقط:

The sun - the earth – the moon – the sky – the world – the sea – the globe

The North Pole – the Eiffel Tower – The European Union – the galaxy



(2)- قبل أسماء الأنهار والبحار وسلاسل الجبال والمحيطات والصحارى :

The Red Sea – The Mediterranean Sea The Amazon – The Thames - The Nile -

The Alps – The Himalayas - The Andes – The Pacific Ocean – The Atlantic

The Indian Ocean – The Sahara



(3) – قبل أسماء الدول المركبة (مختصرة أو كاملة) :

The United States of America (the U.S.A) – The United Kingdom (the U.K )

The United Arab Emirates - The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – the Sudan



(4)- قبل الاختراعات والاكتشافات:

{The plane - The computer – The internet – The femto second – The wheel The plough – The telephone }

(5)- قبل الصفة بحيث تشمل طبقة من الناس:

المعاقيين The disabled الـفقراء The poor الأغنياء The rich

كبار السن The old الموهوبين The talented



(6)- قبل اسم الحيوان بحيث يشمل فصيلة من الحيوانات:

The lion is a dangerous animal. ·

· The giraffe is a wild animal that has a very long neck.



(7)- قبل صفات التفضيل القصوى:

{ The oldest – the biggest – the highest – the best – the most – the smallest } The Nile is the longest river in the world. ·



(8)- قبل الكتب المقدسة وأسماء الصحف والاتجاهات:

The Holly Koran – The Bible – The Times- The east – The west – The south The north…

(9)- قبل الآلات الموسيقية :

{ The guitar – The piano – The drums – The violin – The oud – The flute}

)10)- قبل الاسم الذى أصبح معرفة نتيجة ذكره فى الجملة للمرة الثانية:

He bought a book and a dictionary but the dictionary wasn't very good. ·

· There is a cat under the table. The cat is sleeping.



(11)- تستخدم قبل الفترات الزمنية:

In the morning – in the afternoon – in the evening

But we say : { at night - at noon - at mid-night – at dawn }



(12) – تستخدم مع أسماء دور السينما و المسارح والفنادق والمطاعم والنوادى :

The cinema - The theatre- The Hilton hotel – The National park ) (



) 13)- قبل الكلمات: { the first – the second – the only – the last }



(14) - قبل مجموعات الجزر: The Bahamas – The Indonesians } {





( 15 - ( للتخصيص والتحديد:

The history of Egypt - The university of Cairo – The statue of liberty } {

· The people in my street are very friendly.

I really like the teachers at my school. ·



( 16( - قبل الاسم المسبوق بجملة وصل:

This is the policeman who arrested the criminal. ·

· The story which I read yesterday was very interesting.



(17) - قبل الجنسيات عند الاشارة الى مجموعة من الناس بصفة عامة:

The Egyptians - the English - the French - the Arabs – the Spanish –

the Dutch – the Brazilians – the Russians – the Americans

The Japanese and the Chinese work very hard. ·



(18)- مع جمل المقارنة:

The more you study , the higher marks you get. ·

The more you read , the more you know. ·

· The less you spend , the more you save.






(1)– لا تستخدم مع الاسم الجمع عندما نتحدث عنه بصفة عامه:

Professors teach and do researches. ·

· Children can be very cruel.

أما فى حالة التخصيص نستخدم قبله The :

· The professors at the management department are friendly.

· The children in " Lord of the Flies" are cruel.

· They are the shirts I bought yesterday.



(2)- لا تستخدم مع الاسم المفرد الذى لا يعد أو الدال على الكمية عندما نتحدث عنه بصفة عامة:

· Milk is good for children. · Meat is rich in proteins.



(3)- المواد الدراسية واللغات :

{ English – Arabic – science – physics – chemistry - biology – history – maths}

I like chemistry more than any other subject. ·

English is the world's most widely used language. ·



(4)- المواد الخام عندما نتحدث عنها بصفة عامة:

} wool metal – iron - Cotton – silver – gold – silk – wood – plastic – oil – {

best suits are made of wool. · The



(5)- الرياضات والأنشطة :

{ Football – basketball – volleyball – tennis - swimming- reading – shopping.}

· Football is the most popular game in the world.



(6)- الكلمات المعنوية:

{ love- hatred – peace- tolerance – freedom - wisdom – honesty – co-operation

happiness - sadness – beauty – democracy – corruption –work – violence

cruelty – intolerance……..}



· Happiness is something that the rich can't buy.

· Peace is the dream of a lot of nations

( 7)- أسماء الوجبات بصفة عامة:{ breakfast – lunch – dinner – supper }

· What do you usually have for breakfast?



ولكن فى حالة التخصيص نضع قبلها the :

The dinner I had yesterday was very delicious. ·



(8)- أسماء المدن والبلاد:

· Paris is the capital of France.



(9)- أسماء القارات والبحيرات :

{ Asia – Africa – Europe – South America – Lake Victoria – Lake Nasser



(10)- فصول وشهور السنة:

Summer- autumn – winter – spring – July – August – December……….} {



(11)- قبل الألقاب المتبوعة باسم شخص:

Prof. Magdi Yaccoub Mr. Ahmed Elsayad king Fahd

(12)-قبل الاتجاهات المنتهية بــ ern: {northern – southern – eastern – western

Pasteur became a professor at the university of Lille in northern France. ·



( 13)-قبل الكلمات التالية اذا كان الـذهاب اليها من أجل الغرض الذى أنشئت من اجله:

{ hospital – school – prison – court- university – mosque – church – bed ..}

· Students go to school to learn. ® ( as a student )

· I went to the school to meet the headmaster. ® ( as a visitor)



(14)- قبل قمم الجبال اذا كانت فى صيغة المفرد:

Mount Everest Mount Sinai Mount Kilimanjaro

) 15)- قبل كلمة home مع هذه الكلمات:

go home- get home – return home – reach/ arrive home – on my way home - On T.V

(16)- قيل أسماء الجزر المنفردة: Bermuda - Sicily – Crete – Corsica

· Crete is an island in the Mediterranean.

§أدوات النكرة a \ an :



An

A


قبل الاسم المفرد الذى يعد البادئ بصوت متحرك



an airport an engineer

an article an umbrella





an hour

an honest girl

an honourable man

an underground train



· An hour is a length of time.

قبل الاسم المفرد الذى يعد البادئ بصوت ساكن :

a school a job

a hospital a house

a uniform a unit

a university professor



{ uniform – university – usual –

united – union - use - useful – useless – European …...}



· Have you ever been to a European country?


§ حالات استخدام a \ an :

1- عند الاشارة الى شئ واحد:

· I live in an old house in a remote village.

· My brother has got a job as an accountant in a bank.



2- قبل الوظائف:

My father works as an engineer in an oil company. ·



3- قبل بعض الأمراض: a cold – a headache - a sore throat….. } {

· I am going to bed . I have a headache.

· Don't come near me. I have got a sore throat.



4- قبل أدوات التجزئة: { a piece of – an item of – a bit of ……….}

· He gave me a piece of advice that I should I take.

5- فى تعبيرات عددية خاصة: · a dozen (12) – a fortnight (14) - a score (20)

6- فى الجمل التعجبية قيل الاسم المفرد الذى يعد: What a generous man ! ·

ملحوظة هامــة:

· الاختراعات الحديثة عند الاشارة اليها كشئ واحد نستخدم a / an ) ):

· أما عند الاشارة اليها كاختراع نستخدم the:

· I bought a computer yesterday.

· The computer is one of the most important inventions.



· Have you got a telephone?

· Graham Bell invented the telephone.

· عند الاشارة الى الحيوان بذاته نستخدم a/ an :

· أما عند الاشارة الى الحيوان كفصيلة نستخدم the:

· I saw a lion in the zoo yesterday.

· The lion is a dangerous animal.



Choose the correct answers from a , b, c or d:

My sister works in a hospital. She has to wear ……..uniform. 1-

a- an b-a c- the d-no article

The job Hisham does isn't …………usual job. It needs a lot of skill. 2-

a- an b-a c- the d-no article

3- ……………..often hunt in packs.

a- The lion b-The lions c- Lions d- The lion

4- …………….teachers work very hard.

a- An b – An c- The d- no article

5- ……………teachers at my school work very hard.

a- An b – An c- The d- no article

6- After….………university education , he worked in the theater.

a- An b – An c- The d- no article

5- I respect him greatly because of his ….……honesty.

a- an b-a c- the d-no article

6- ……..……doctors are qualified to practise medicine.

a- an b-a c- the d-no article

7- ……..…..necklace can be made of gold, diamond or glass.

a- an b-a c- the d-no article

8- ………....necklace was made of diamond..

a- an b-a c- the d-no article









¨ تحل محل فاعل عاقل او اسم مكرر فى الجملة الثانية who (that ) ®

¨ يأتى بعدها فعل ويسبقها فاعل عاقل

¨ يمكن أن يأتى مكانها ضمير الوصل (that ) ولايسبقها حرف جر :



My uncle is a businessman. He has an import and export company. ·

® My uncle who has an import and export company is a businessman.



The woman is friendly. The woman lives next door. ·

The woman who lives next door is friendly . ®

……………………………………………………………………….………..



¨ الذى – التى ( للعاقل) ® (that ) whom

¨ تحل مفعول به عاقل أو ضمير مفعول فى الجملة الثانية

¨ يتبعها فاعل ويسبقها اسم عاقل

¨ يمكن أن يأتى مكانها (that)

¨ يمكن أن يسبقها حرف جر

The men were honest. I lived with them in London. ·

The men whom I lived with in London were honest. ®

The men with whom I lived in London were honest. ®



The man is very kind. I worked with him. ·

The man whom I worked with is very kind. ®

® The man with whom I worked is very kind.

……………………………………………………………………….………..



¨ الذى / التى ( لغير العاقـل ) which (that ) ®

¨ تحل محل فاعل أو مفعول غير عاقل فى الجملة الثانية

¨ يمكن أن يأتى مكانها (that) و يمكن أن يسبقها حرف جر

I opened the window. It overlooks the garden. ·

I opened the window which overlooks the garden. ®



The dress was very nice. She wore it last night. ·

® The dress which she wore last night was very nice.

……………………………………………………………….………..



¨تستخدم للملكية whose ®

¨ تحل محل صفة الملكية أو (s') ('s) فى الجملة الثانية

¨ صفات الملكية هىmy – his – her- our – our – their ) )

¨ يأتى قبلها المالك وبعدها الاسم المملوك (عاقل أو غير عاقل )



That is the man . His car was stolen yesterday. ·

® That is the man whose car was stolen yesterday.



My uncle traveled abroad. We live in his house. ·

® My uncle whose house we live in traveled abroad.

……………………………………………………………………………..



¨ حيث للمكان ® where

¨ يأتى قبلها مباشرة مكان

¨ ولا يأتى معها حرف جر واذا جاء حرف جر نستخدم (which)



I went to the town . I was born in this town. ·

I went to the town where I was born. ®

® I went to the town which I was born in.

® I went to the town in which I was born.

……………………………………………………………………….…..



¨ عندما / فى الوقت الذى فيه (للزمن ) ® when ¨ ¨ يأتى قبلها الوقت أو الـزمن

¨ ولا يأتى معها حرف جر واذا جاء حرف جر نستخدم (which)



· July is the month . we go on holiday in it.

July is the month when we go on holiday. ®

® July is the month in which we go on holiday .



Re-write the following sentences:

The boy will be punished . He threw that stone. (who) ·

The boy who threw that stone will be punished. ®



·The man is a famous tennis player. We met him at the club. (who)

® The man who we met at the club is a famous tennis player.



· A man cut your hair . He did it badly . ( The man )

® The man who cut your hair did it badly.



· A dictionary is a book . It tells us what words mean. (which)

® A dictionary is a book which tells us what words mean .



· We stayed at the hotel . Adel recommended that hotel to us. (which)

® We stayed at the hotel which Adel recommended to us .



· You are wearing a dress. It is lovely. (The dress)

® The dress which you are wearing is lovely.



· I cut some flowers this morning. They are still fresh. (The flowers)

® The flowers which I cut this morning are still fresh.



· Dr.Gamal is a famous doctor. His clinic is in our street. (whose)

® Dr.Gamal whose clinic is in our street is a famous doctor.



· There were two players. Everyone was impressed by their skill. (whose)

® There were two players whose skill impressed everyone.



· The town which I was born in is in the south of England. (where)

® The town where I was born is in the south of England.



· Ahmed Zewail discovered the Femto Second. ( It was )

® It was Ahmed Zewail who discovered the Femto Second.



Choose the correct answers from a , b, c or d:

1- Mr. Ayman ,…………car I borrowed last night , is a family friend.

a- who b-whom c-that d-whose

2-He played the violin all night ……………..annoyed the neighbours.

a- what b-which c-whose d- who

3-A supermarket is large shop.....you can buy many different things.

a-who b- what c-which d- where

4- In our garden , there is a palm tree….height is over thirteen metres.

a-which b-where c-whose d-that

5-If I mix them all together , can you identify ………..pen is Ali's?

a-whose b-what c-that d-which

6-Ashraf bought a new puppy…………will him because he is blind.

a-who b-where c-that d- whose

I think I must go somewhere ………..is relaxing. 7-

a-where b- what c- that d-whose

I need to go somewhere ……………I feel relaxed. - 8-

a-where b- what c- that d-whose

9-Lisa,………….in my class at school, is very good at English.

a- who b-who's c-whose d-that

10- Tanta ,…………….is Egypt's fifth largest city , has many mosques.

a- that b- whose c- which d- where





اللهم عافنى فى بدنى , اللهم عافنى فى سمعى , اللهم عافنى فى بصرى

لا اله الاأنت

اللهم انى أعــوذ بك من الكــفـر والـفـقــر وأعــوذ بك من عــذاب القـبــر

إذا أخذ الله منك ما لم تتوقع ضياعه, فسوف يعطيك ما لم تتوقع تملكه













(1)- شبـــــه تأكــــد: (من المؤكد تقريبا)

فى الاثبات:



مــــا ضــــى


مضــــارع



must have +p.p

مصدر must +



· Nada is absent today, she must be ill.

· Nada was absent yesterday, she must have been ill.



فى النفى: (من غير المؤكد- لايمكن أن يكون.......)



مــــا ضــــى


مضــــارع



can't have +p.p

مصدر can't+



· He can’t be at work today. It's a holiday.

· He can't have been at work yesterday. It was a holiday

.

♣ كلمات تساوى must – can't :

I am sure /certain that……………. ♣

♣ It's certain that…….

♣ I think………definitely…………



♣ I'm sure that he is a doctor. (must)

® He must be doctor.



♣ I'm certain that Ahmed won the match yesterday. (must)

® Ahmed must have won the match yesterday.



♣ I'm sure he isn't over thirty. (can't)

® He can't be over thirty.



I'm sure he didn't steal the money. (can't) ♣

® He can't have stolen the money.



♣ I'm sure I left the umbrella in the restaurant last night. (must)

® I must have left the umbrella in the restaurant last night.



♣It is impossible that he missed the train. (must – can't)

® He must have caught the train.

® He can't have missed the train.



♣ I'm sure the suit he bought yesterday is a good quality. (must)

® The suit he bought yesterday must be a good quality.

………………………………………………………………………...

) 2)- احتماليــة – عدم تــأكــد:( غير مؤكد- من المحتمل )





مــــا ضــــى


مضــــارع



may have +p.p

مصدر may+



might have + p.p

مصدر might +



♣ كلمات تساوى may /might :

♣ Perhaps,…………………………

♣ It is probable that……………….

♣ It is possible that………………..

♣ I am not sure/certain that………..

♣ I don't think/believe…………….



♣ Perhaps he will arrive tomorrow. (may)

® He may arrive tomorrow.



♣ It is probable that they missed the nine o’clock train. (may)

® They may have missed the nine o'clock train.



♣ Perhaps my uncle has received an invitation. ( might)

® My uncle might have received an invitation.



♣ I don’t think he sent the letter yesterday. (might)

® He might not have sent the letter yesterday.







♣ السؤال المضاف للجملة معناه دائمـا "أليس كذلك؟"

♣ السؤال يكون عكس الجملة في الإثبات و النفي.

♣ يتكون من ? ضمير الفاعل + فعل مساعد



♣ Mohamed is an engineer, isn't he?

♣ They aren't at home, are they?

♣ He has been to London, hasn’t he?

Mona can speak English, can't she? ♣

♣ You will phone him tomorrow, won't you?



اذا لم يوجد بالجملة فعل مساعد أو ناقص, ننظر الى الفعل :

اذا كان الفعل فى المصدر don't

اذا كان بالفعل s- es- ies doesn't

اذا كان الفعل بالماضى didn't



Hala lives in Cairo, doesn’t she? ♣

They walk to school everyday, don't they? ♣

♣ Sara finished her work, didn’t she?

ملا حظات هامة:

(1)- I am aren't I? I'm not am I?

·I am a teacher, aren’t I?

·I am not a doctor, am I?



(2)-Let's shall we? Let us will you?/ won't you?



· Let's go swimming, shall we?

·Let us leave early, will you / won't you?

(3)- فى حالة الأمر المثبت أو المنفى نستخدم : will you ?

♣ Open the window, will you?

♣ Don’t make too much noise, will you ?



(4)- اذا كانت has– have–had فعل أساسى فى الجملة نستخدم does- do did:

♣ Ayman has a new car, doesn't he?

♣ They have a special uniform, don't they?

♣ Eman had tea after lunch, didn't she?



)5)- everyone /everybody /someone / somebody / no one/ nobody

anyone- anybody – these – those

they تستبدل فى السؤال بالضمير

♣ Everyone has done the homework, haven’t they?

♣ Everybody’s at the match, aren’t they?

♣ Nobody saw the robbers, did they?



(6)- الكلمات something / everything / nothing /this / that

يأتي بدلا منها في السؤال it:

♣ Something has happened, hasn’t it?

♣ This is not right, is it?



(7) -الكلمات الآتية تعبر عن النفي ولذلك يكون السؤال مثبت:

(seldom / never / scarcely / neither / little / few / hardly / rarely /

no longer )

♣ He no longer comes early, does he?

♣ There’s hardly any food, is there?



(8)- لاحظ أن الجمل التي تبدأ بـ I think / I believe يكون السؤال المذيل على الجزء الثاني ولكن الجملة التي تبدأ بـ don't think/I don't believe تعتبر منفية:

♣ I think Omar will win the race, won’t he?

♣ I don't think they are lazy, are they?

* لاحظ الاختصارات الأتية:

♣ 'd+better had better 'd+rather would rather

· You'd better leave, hadn't you?

·You'd rather go, wouldn't you?



♣ 's+p.p= has 's+ing = is 's+ صفة= is

· He's finished his homework, hasn't he?

· Nora's doing a research, isn't she?

· Mohamed is helpful, isn't he?





إذا جـاء الفعـل need فـي الإثبـات يكـون السـؤال المـذيـل don’t .

♣ We need your help badly, don’t we?



إذا جـاء الفعـل needn’t نستخـدم need فـي السـؤال المـذيـل .

They needn’t take a taxi, need they? ♣



إذا جـاء الفعـل dare فـي الإثبـات نستخـدم don’t فـي السـؤال المـذيـل

♣ They dare to go without guns, don’t they?



إذا جـاء الفعـل daren’t نستخـدم dare فـي السـؤال المـذيل :

♣ They daren’t tell the truth, dare they?



في حالة وجود IF يكون السؤال علي الجزء الثاني من الجملة(جواب الشرط) :

♣ If she doesn't have a map, she'll get lost, won't she?

♣ If he practised well, he would win the race, wouldn't he?

……………………………………………………………………….…..



Re-write the following sentences:

♣ He comes early, doesn't he? (late)

· He doesn't come late ,does he?



♣ He didn't pass the final exam, did he? (failed)

· He failed the final exam, didn't he?



♣ She didn't miss the bus, did she? (caught)

· She caught the bus ,didn't she?



Hossam lost the race ,didn't he? (win) ♣

· Hossam didn't win the race, did he?



♣ She usually misses the bus, doesn't she? (never)

· She never catches the bus, does she?



♣ Everything is right, is it? (wrong)

·Nothing is wrong, is it?



I suggest we go for a walk, don't we? (Let's) ♣

· Let's go for a walk, shall we?








أولا: زمن المضارع البسيط :

( am – is – are ) + pp + المفعول



♣ People speak English all over the world.

® English is spoken all over the world.



♣ People design houses to be warm in winter and cool in summer.

Houses are designed to be warm in winter and cool in summer. ®

..........................................................................................................................

ثانيا: زمن الماضى البسيط:

+( was – were ) + pp المفعول



Graham Bell invented the telephone. ♣

The telephone was invented by Graham Bell. ®



♣ I understood the lesson after hard study.

® The lesson was understood after hard study.

..........................................................................................................................

ثالثا: المضارع المستمر :

( am – is – are ) + being + pp المفعول

♣ The mechanic is repairing my car now.

® My car is being repaired now.



♣ They are discussing some problems at the moment.

Some problems are being discussed at the moment. ®

..........................................................................................................................

رابعا: زمن الماضى المستمر:

( was – were ) +being + pp + المفعول





♣ He was watering the plants when I arrived.

The plants were being watered when I arrived. ®



♣ They were still building this hospital when I last came here.

® This hospital was still being built when I last came here.

.......................................................................................................................

خامسا: زمن المضارع الـتـام:

( has – have) + been + pp + المفعول



♣ Thousands of people have visited the museum.

® The museum has been visited by thousands of people.



♣ We haven't painted the walls of the flat yet.

®The walls of the flat hasn't been painted yet.

.......................................................................................................................

سادسا: زمن الماضى التام:

had been ) + pp (+ المفعول

Someone had stolen my car ♣

My car had been stolen. ®



♣ After the police had arrested the criminal, he managed to escape.

® After the criminal had been arrested, he managed to escape.

.....................................................................................................................

سابعا: زمن المستقبل البسيط:

will be + pp + المفعول

♣ I will type the letter tomorrow.

The letter will be typed tomorrow. ®



♣ I will send this e-mail tomorrow.

®This e-mail will be sent tomorrow.



تاسعا : الأفعال الناقصة:



Passive



Active




be + p.p















♣ You must leave your bags here.

Your bags must be left here ®



♣ We are going to build a new house next month.

® A new house is going to be built next month



He should change the time of the meeting. ♣

® The time of the meeting has to be changed.

.............................................................................................................. ♣ People speak English all over the world. (spoken)

English is spoken all over the world.



♣ The ancient Egyptians built the pyramids. (were)

The pyramids were built by the ancient Egyptians.



♣They are doing the exercise now . (being)

The exercise is being done now



♣ The gardener was picking the flowers. (being)

The flowers were being picked by the gardener



♣ Millions of people have visited the museum . (been)

The museum has been visited by millions of people.



♣ They had built a new hospital near the airport. (been)

A new hospital had been built near the airport.



♣ I will do the homework tonight. ( be)

The homework will be done tonight.



♣ You can buy tickets on the day of the match. (Tickets)

Tickets can be bought on the day of the match.



♣ You must leave your bags here. ( be)

Your bags must be left here.



♣ We are going to build a new house next month. (be)

A new house is going to be built next month.

.....................................................................................................

♠ إذا كانت الجملـة منفيـة بـ not - does not do احذفهمـا واستخدم

am - is - are + not + pp

♣ We don't allow smoking in this restaurant. (Smoking)

Smoking isn’t allowed in this restaurant.



♠ إذا كانـت الجملـة منفيـة بـــ did not احــذفهـا واستخـدم was - were + not + pp .

He didn't take the medicine yesterday. (wasn't) ♣

The medicine wasn't taken yesterday.



♠ إذا كـان الفاعـل nobody , no one لا يستخـدم بعـد by ويحـول الفعـل إلى النفـى:

♣ Nobody answered this question.

The question wasn't answered.



v الأفعـال التى يليها المصـدر بـدون to : فى المبنى للمجهــول يأتى بعــدها

( المصـدر + to ) مثــل make - see - hear - do .

♣ The teacher made me do the homework again.

I was made to do the homework again.



v إذا وجـــد بالجمــلـة الفعـــل let يحـــول إلـى allow to .

♣ He let me go out.

I was allowed to go out

....................................................................................................

v إذا وجـد بالجمـلة مفعـولين استخدم أى منهما فاعـلا وإذا بدأت بالمفعـول غيـر العاقـل
نستخـدم to – for قبـل المفعـول العاقـل .

♣ I gave them the good presents.

They were given the good presents.

Or The good presents were given to them.

............................................................................................................

v عنـد تحـويــل الجمـلـة الأمـريــة إلى passive نستخـدم:

let + المفعول + be + P.Pفى الاثبات:

♣ Close the door.

Let the door be closed

فى النفى: p.p + مفعول + Don' t let



♣ Don't close the window.

Don't let the window be closed.

.............................................................................................................

v عنـد تحــويل الجملة الإستفهـامية إلى passive نتبـع الأتـى :

v يحــول الســـؤال إلى جمــلة خبريـة و ذلك بوضـع الفاعـل قبـل الفعـل

المساعـد و حــذف أداة الاستفهـام .

v تحــول الجمـلة الخبـريـة إلـى passive كمـا سبــق .

v تحــول جمــلة الــ passive إلى إستفهــام و ذلـك بتقديـم الفعــل المساعـد

علـى الفاعـل ووضـع أداة الاستفهـام .

Do people speak English all over the world ? (Is)

People speak English all over the world.



English is spoken all over the world.

Is English spoken all over the world ?





v إذا بدأ السـؤال بـ Who تحــول إلى By whom فى passive .

Who speaks English ?

By whom is English spoken ?

.....................................................................................................



v إذا بـدأ الســـؤال بــ Whom تحــول إلـى Who مــع إتبـاع الخطـوات السـابقـة .

♣ Whom did the teacher punish yesterday ?

The teacher punished (the boy) yesterday

.

The boy was punished yesterday by the teacher.

Who was punished by the teacher yesterday ?



♣ Are they building a new house?

Is a new house being built?



♣ When will you buy the new car?

When will the new car be bought?



♣ Where did he hide the book ?

Where was the book hidden by him ?

.....................................................................................................



عند تحويل الجملة من المبنى للمجهول الى المبنى للمعلوم :



♣ The letter was written yesterday. ( He)

He wrote the letter yesterday.



♣ New cities have been built by the government. ( The government)

The government has built new cities,



♣ The plants is being watered by him now. ( He)

He is watering the plants now.







أولا: السؤال بفعل مساعد:

1- نحول فعل القول الى asked –wondered- inquired –wanted to know

2-نحذف الأ قواس ونربط بــ if -whether

3-نحول السؤال الى جملــة (نبدأ بالفاعل ثم الفعل)

4-نغير الضمائر حسب المتكلم والمخاطب.

(I- we) تعود على الفاعل you تعود على المفعول

5- نحول الأزمنة والظروف الزمنية وأسماء الاشارة حسب الجدول السابق صــ 7.

واذا كان فعل القول مضارع لاتتغير الأزمنة ولا الظروف الزمنية ولكن تتغير الضمائر فقط:



♣ He says to me, “Have you ever been to England?” ( if )

He asks me if I have ever been to England.



♣ She says to him, "Are you looking forward to your holiday?"( asks)

She asks him if he is looking forward to his holiday.



ملاحظة: تحذف do /did/ does عند تحويل السؤال الى غير المباشر:

Samy said to Samia, "Do you speak French?" (asked) ♣

Samy asked Samia if she spoke French.



“Will you see the film on TV this evening ?" (asked) me Hatem said to ♣

Hatem asked me if I would see the film on T.V that evening.



♣ Ramy said to me , "Did you read the story yesterday?" (wondered)

Ramy wondered if I had read the story the previous day.



♣ Mona said to Dina, " Are you going with your family?" (whether)

Mona asked Dina whether she was going with her family.

ثانيا: السؤال بأداة الاستفام:

1- نحول فعل القول الىasked –wondered- inquired –wanted to know

2-نحذف الأ قواس ونربط بنفس أداة الاستفهام.

3-نحول السؤال الى جملــة (نبدأ بالفاعل ثم الفعل)

4-نغير الضمائر حسب المتكلم والمخاطب.

(I- we) تعود على الفاعل you تعود على المفعول

5- نحول الأزمنة والظروف الزمنية وأسماء الاشارة حسب الجدول السابق



Hisham says to Ashraf, When are you leaving?" (asks) ♣

Hisham asks Ashraf when he is leaving.



He said to me, "How old are you?" (asked) ♣

He asked me how old I was.



♣ He said to me," Where did you go for your holiday last year?" (asked)

He asked me where I had gone for my holiday the previous year.



ملاحظة:اذا كان فعل القول ماضى والحدث انتهى منذ فترة قصيرة لا تتغير الأزمنة ولا الظروف ولكن تتغير الضمائر فقط:



♣ Radwa said to Hossam just now, "How do you go to school? " (asked)

Radwa asked Hossam just now how he goes to school .



♣تحويل الغير مباشر الى مباشر:

♣ Aya asked Eman if she had done her homework yet. (said to) Aya said to Eman,"Have you done your homework yet?"



♣ Khaled asked Adel how long he would be away for. (said to )

Khaled said to Adel," how long will you be away for?"

I wondered when she had visited her grandmother. (said to) ♣ said to her," when did you visit your grandmother?"










































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